The field of diabetes research is dominated by studies testing drug therapies, and on higher carbohydrate containing diets which limit fats and recommend whole, complex grain based foods. We believe that research should be done which tests the hypothesis that a carbohydrate restricted diet can reverse many diabetic symptoms and help diabetics in controlling blood sugar and insulin levels, reduce associated disease risks, and improve markers for inflammation and heart disease.
For instance, recent research has shown that lowering RBP4 could be a new strategy for treating type 2 diabetes.
One of the unexpected players in the nutrition and metabolism story is a small protein called RBP4. Until recently known only as a retinol (vitamin A) binding protein, its appearance in blood was surprisingly discovered to be a correlate of insulin resistance. Beyond a simple association a number of very elegant experiments have supported the idea.
Other recent research on the effects of carbohydrate restriction on diabetes and associated conditions includes the following studies: (Note: Some of these papers require Adobe Acrobat Reader )
- Effect of low-calorie versus low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet in type 2 diabetes. Hussain TA, Mathew TC, Dashti AA, Asfar S, Al-Zaid N, Dashti HM.
- Low-Carbohydrate Diet Review: Shifting the Paradigm. Adele H. Hite, Valerie Goldstein Berkowitz and Keith Berkowitz
- Effects of a low-carbohydrate diabetes-specific formula in type 2 diabetic patients during tube feeding evaluated by continuous glucose monitoring. Yutaka Mori, Teruo Ohta, Takaaki Tanaka, Yoshiko Morohoshi, Kenichi Matsuura, Junichi Yokoyama, Kazunori Utsunomiya
- High-protein low-carbohydrate diets: what is the rationale? Luca Busetto, Mariangela Marangon, Fabio De Stefano
- Dietary prescriptions for the overweight patient: the potential benefits of low-carbohydrate diets in insulin resistance. M. W. Lee, K. Fujioka
- Comparison of anthropometric and metabolic responses to a short-term carbohydrate restricted diet and exercise versus a traditional diet and exercise. GA Brown, AM Swendener, BS Shaw, I Shaw
- Targeting dietary fat or glycemic load in the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes: A randomized controlled trial. A.N. Fabricatore, T.A. Wadden, C.B. Ebbeling, J.G. Thomas, V.A. Stallings, S. Schwartz, D.S. Ludwig
- Effects of dietary fat modification on insulin sensitivity and on other risk factors of the metabolic syndrome—LIPGENE: a European randomized dietary intervention study. A C Tierney, J McMonagle, D I Shaw, H L Gulseth, O Helal, W H M Saris, J A Paniagua, I Goąbek-Leszczyñska, C Defoort, C M Williams, B Karsltröm, B Vessby, A Dembinska-Kiec, J López-Miranda, E E Blaak, C A Drevon, M J Gibney, J A Lovegrove and H M Roche
- Central infusion of ketone bodies modulates body weight and hepatic insulin sensitivity by modifying hypothalamic leptin and insulin signaling pathways in type 2 diabetic rats. Park S, Kim da S, Daily JW
- Reversal of Diabetic Nephropathy by a Ketogenic Diet. Michal M. Poplawski, Jason W. Mastaitis, Fumiko Isoda, Fabrizio Grosjean, Feng Zheng, Charles V. Mobbs
- Chronic methylglyoxal infusion by minipump causes pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction and induces type 2 diabetes in Sprague-Dawley rats. Arti Dhar, Indu Dhar, Bo Jiang, Kaushik M. Desai and Lingyun Wu
- A Pilot Study of the Spanish Ketogenic Mediterranean Diet: An Effective Therapy for the Metabolic Syndrome. Joaquín Pérez-Guisado and Andrés Muñoz-Serrano
- Fad Diets in the Treatment of Diabetes by Richard Feinman
- Carbohydrate quantity and quality and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) study” Ivonne Sluijs, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Daphne L van der A, Annemieke M Spijkerman, Frank B Hu, Diederick E Grobbee, and Joline W Beulens . Conclusion: “Diets high in GL, GI, and starch and low in fiber were associated with an increased diabetes risk. Both carbohydrate quantity and quality seem to be important factors in diabetes prevention.
- Revealing the molecular relationship between type 2 diabetes and the metabolic changes induced by a very-low-carbohydrate low-fat ketogenic diet, Judith Farrés, Albert Pujol, Mireia Coma, Jose Luis Ruiz, Jordi Naval, José Manuel Mas, Agustí Molins, Joan Fondevila, Patrick Aloy
- A low carbohydrate Mediterranean diet improves cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes control among overweight patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 1-year prospective randomized intervention study. A. Elhayany, A. Lustman, R. Abel, J. Attal-Singer, S. Vinker
- A high-fat diet inhibits the progression of diabetes mellitus in type 2 diabetic rats. Yukihito Ishii, Takeshi Ohta, Tomohiko Sasase, Hisayo Morinaga, Takahiro Hata, Katsuhiro Miyajima, Yoshiaki Katusda, Taku Masuyama, Masami Shinohara, Makoto Kakutani, Mutsuyoshi Matsushita
- A Randomized Trial of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet vs Orlistat Plus a Low-Fat Diet for Weight Loss. William S. Yancy Jr, MD, MHS; Eric C. Westman, MD, MHS; Jennifer R. McDuffie, PhD, RD, MPH; Steven C. Grambow, PhD; Amy S. Jeffreys, MStat; Jamiyla Bolton, MS; Allison Chalecki, RD; Eugene Z. Oddone, MD, MHS
- Effect of Strength and Endurance Training in Combination with Low Carbohydrate Diet in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome. B. Heilmeyer1, B. F. H. Thomas
- Pathogenesis of Fasting and Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes: Implications for Therapy. Robert A. Rizza
- Diabetes Mellitus: A Diagnosis Too Late. Robert Su
- Further decrease in glycated hemoglobin following ingestion of a LoBAG30 diet for 10 weeks compared to 5 weeks in people with untreated type 2 diabetes. Mary C Gannon, Heidi Hoover and Frank Q Nuttall
- In the face of contradictory evidence: Report of the Dietary Guidelines for
Americans Committee. Adele H. Hite M.A.T., Richard David Feinman Ph.D., Gabriel E. Guzman Ph.D., Morton Satin M.Sc., Pamela A. Schoenfeld R.D., Richard J. Wood Ph.D.
- Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes Vasanti S. Malik, SCD, Barry M. Popkin, PHD, George A. Bray, MD, Jean-Pierre Després, PHD, Walter C. Willett, MD, DRPH and Frank B. Hu, MD, PHD
- The role of fructose in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and the metabolic syndrome. Jung Sub Lim, Michele Mietus-Snyder, Annie Valente, Jean-Marc Schwarz and Robert H. Lustig
- Carbohydrate intake and cardiometabolic risk factors in high BMI African American children. Sushma Sharma, Lindsay S Roberts, Robert H Lustig and Sharon E Fleming
- Low carbohydrate ketogenic diet prevents the induction of diabetes using streptozotocin in rats. A. Al-Khalifa, T.C. Mathew, N.S. Al-Zaid, E. Mathew and H. Dashti
- Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study Tommy Jönsson, Yvonne Granfeldt, Bo Ahrén1, Ulla-Carin Branell, Gunvor Pålsson, Anita Hansson, Margareta Söderström and Staffan Lindeberg
- Effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on glycemic control in outpatients with severe type 2 diabetes. Hajime Haimoto, Tae Sasakabe, Kenji Wakai and Hiroyuki Umegaki
- The Relationship between Dietary Fat and Fatty Acid Intake and Body Weight, Diabetes, and the Metabolic Syndrome. Edward L. Melanson, Arne Astrup and William T. Donahoo
- Carbohydrate Restriction has a More Favorable Impact on the Metabolic Syndrome than a Low Fat Diet. Jeff S. Volek, Stephen D. Phinney, Cassandra E. Forsythe, Erin E. Quann, Richard J. Wood, Michael J. Puglisi, William J. Kraemer, Doug M. Bibus, Maria Luz Fernandez and Richard D. Feinman
- Effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on glycemic control in outpatients with severe type 2 diabetes. Hajime Haimoto, Tae Sasakabe, Kenji Wakai and Hiroyuki Umegaki
- Effectiveness of Cinnamon for Lowering Hemoglobin A1C in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Controlled Trial Paul Crawford, MD, J Am Board Family Med 2009;22:507–512.
- Uncontrolled diabetes increases the risk of Alzheimer’s disease: a population-based cohort study Diabetologia, June, 2009
- Abdominal Adiposity Is Associated With Elevated C-Reactive Protein Independent of BMI in Healthy Nonobese People Emanuela Lapice, MD, Simona Maione, BS, Lidia Patti, PHD, Paola Cipriano, BS, Angela A. Rivellese, MD, Gabriele Riccardi, MD and Olga Vaccaro, MD
- Postprandial hyperglycemia as an etiological factor in vascular failure Koichi Node and Teruo Inoue Department of Cardiovascular and Renal Medicine, Saga University Faculty of Medicine, Saga, Japan
- Therapeutic role of low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet in diabetes Alaa Al-Khalifa, M.Sc.a, Thazhumpal Chacko Mathew, M.Sc., Ph.D., F.R.C.Path.,a,b, Naji S. Al- Zaid, B.Sc., Ph.D.d, Elizabeth Mathew, B.Sc.a, and Hussein M. Dashti, M.D., Ph.D., F.I.C.S., F.A.C.S.
- Systematic Review: Glucose Control and Cardiovascular Disease in Type 2 Diabetes
Tanika N. Kelly, PhD; Lydia A. Bazzano, MD, PhD; Vivian A. Fonseca, MD; Tina K. Thethi, MD; Kristi Reynolds, PhD; and Jiang He, MD, PhD
- Carbohydrate Restriction, as a First-Line Dietary Intervention, Effectively Reduces Biomarkers of Metabolic Syndrome in Emirati Adults Taif Al-Sarraj, Hussein Saadi, Mariana C. Calle, Jeff S. Volek and Maria Luz Fernandez (abstract)
- Glycemic control in newly diagnosed diabetes patients and mortality from ischaemic heart disease: 20-year follow-up of the HUNT Study in Norway Ane Cecilie Dale, Kristian Midthjell, Tom Ivar Nilsen, Rune Wiseth and Lars J. Vatten (abstract)
- Effect of oral acetyl L-carnitine arginate on resting and postprandial blood biomarkers in pre-diabetics Richard J. Bloomer, Kelsey H Fisher-Wellman and Patrick S. Tucker, Nutrition & Metabolism June 2, 2009
- Metabolic consequences of incorrect insulin administration techniques in aging subjects with diabetes
- Effects of a Mediterranean-Style Diet on the Need for Antihyperglycemic Drug Therapy in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes A Randomized Trial Katherine Esposito, MD, PhD; Maria Ida Maiorino, MD; Miryam Ciotola, MD; Carmen Di Palo, MD; Paola Scognamiglio, MD; Maurizio Gicchino, MD; Michela Petrizzo, MD; Franco Saccomanno, MD; Flora Beneduce, MD; Antonio Ceriello, MD; and Dario Giugliano, MD, PhD
- Metabolic Syndrome and Changes in Body Fat From a Low-fat Diet and/or Exercise Randomized Controlled Trial Sarah M. Camhi1, Marcia L. Stefanick, Peter T. Katzmarzyk and Deborah R. Young
- Dietary Carbohydrate Restriction in the Treatment of Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome Richard D. Feinman, PhD, Jeff S. Volek, PhD, RD, and Eric C. Westman, MD, MHS
- The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Westman EC, Yancy WS Jr, Mavropoulos JC, Marquart M, McDuffie JR
- Low-carbohydrate-diet score and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Thomas L Halton, Simin Liu, JoAnn E Manson, and Frank B Hu
- Dietary carbohydrate restriction in type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal. Anthony Accurso1, Richard K Bernstein2, Annika Dahlqvist, Boris Draznin, Richard D Feinman, Eugene J Fine, Amy Gleed, David B Jacobs, Gabriel Larson, Robert H Lustig, Anssi H Manninen, Samy I McFarlane, Katharine Morrison, Jørgen Vesti Nielsen, Uffe Ravnskov, Karl S Roth, Ricardo Silvestre, James R Sowers, Ralf Sundberg, Jeff S Volek, Eric C Westman, Richard J Wood, Jay Wortman and Mary C Vernon
- Depression & Diabetes, JAMA June 18 2008
- Effects of Intensive Glucose Lowering in Type 2 Diabetes The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Study Group NEJM June 2008
- Arguments in favor of ketogenic diets The Internet Journal of Nutrition & Wellness
- Dietary carbohydrate restriction in type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal Nutrition & Metabolism 2008, 5:9doi:10.1186/1743-7075-5-9
- Low-carbohydrate diet in type 2 diabetes: stable improvement of bodyweight and glycemic control during 44 months follow-up Jörgen V Nielsen and Eva A Joensson
- Has carbohydrate-restriction been forgotten as atreatment for diabetes mellitus? A perspective on the ACCORD study design. E Westman, MD, M Vernon, MD
- Mechanisms for Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Glycemic Control in Middle-aged and Older Americans in the Health and Retirement Study Mechanisms for racial/ethnicdisparities in glycemic control are poorly understood. Arch Intern Med.2007;167:1853-1860.
- Benefit of Nuts in Type 2 Diabetes
- Low carbohydrate diets improve atherogenic dyslipidemia even in the absence of weight loss. Richard D. Feinman and Jeff S. Volek
- Short-term effects of severe dietary carbohydrate-restriction advice in type 2 diabetes - a randomized controlled trial. Daly ME, Paisey R, Paisey R, et al.: Diabet Med 2006; 23: 15-20.
- Dietary treatment of diabetes mellitus in the pre-insulin era. Westman EC, Yancy Jr. WS,Humphreys M: era (1914-1922). Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 2006; 49:77-83.
- Low-carbohydrate diet in type 2 diabetes. Stable improvement of bodyweight and glycemic control during 22 months follow-up. Jørgen Vesti Nielsen and Eva Jolensson
- Control of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes without weight loss by modification of diet composition. Mary C. Gannon and Frank Q. Nuttall
- A low-carbohydrate diet may prevent end-stage renal failure in type 2 diabetes. A case report Jørgen Vesti Nielsen, Per Westerlund and Per Bygren
- Effect of a low-carbohydrate diet on appetite, blood glucose levels, and insulin resistance in obese patients with type 2 diabetes.
Boden G, Sargrad K, Homko C, Mozzoli M, Stein TP: Ann Intern Med 2005; 142(6): 403-11.
- Carbohydrate restriction improves the features of Metabolic Syndrome. Metabolic Syndrome may be defined by the response to carbohydrate restriction.
Jeff S. Volek and Richard D. Feinman
- Comparison of High-Fat and High-Protein Diets with a High-Carbohydrate diet in Insulin-Resistant Obese Women.
McAuley, K.A., Hopkins, C.M., Smith, K.J., et. alDiabetologia, 48(1), 2005, pages 8-16.
- The case for low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management.
Surender K. Arora and Samy I. McFarlane
- Dietary recommendations for people with diabetes: Time to reduce the carbohydrate loads.
Endocrine Today. 2005;3:4–5.
- A low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet to treat type 2 diabetes.
William S. Yancy Jr., Marjorie Foy, Allison M. Chalecki , Mary C. Vernon and Eric C. Westman
- Effect of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet on blood glucose control in people with type 2 diabetes.
Gannon MC, Nuttall FQ. Diabetes 2004;53(9):2375-82.
- Improved plasma glucose control, whole-body glucose utilization, and lipid profile on a low-glycemic index diet in type 2 diabetic men: a randomized controlled trial.
Rizkalla SW, Taghrid L, Laromiguiere M, et al.: Diabetes Care 2004; 27(8):1866-72.
- Increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and the epidemic of type 2 diabetes in the United States: an ecologic assessment.
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- Importance of weight management in type 2 diabetes: review with meta-analysis of clinical studies. Anderson JW, Kendall CWC, Jenkins DJA. J Am Coll Nutr 2003;22(5):331-9.
- Low-glycemic index diets in the management of diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Brand-Miller J, Hayne S, Petocz P, Colagiuri S. Diabetes Care 2003;26(8):2261-7.
- An increase in dietary protein improves the blood glucose response in persons with type 2 diabetes. Gannon MC, Nuttall FQ, Saeed A, Jordan K, Hoover H: Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 78(4): 734-41.
- Glycemic control and serum lipids in diabetes mellitus. O'Neill DF, Westman EC, Bernstein RK: Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders 2003; 1: 291-298.
- Clinical experience of a carbohydrate-restricted diet: effect on diabetes mellitus. Vernon MC, Mavropoulos J, Transue M, Yancy Jr WS, Westman EC: Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders 2003; 1(3): 233-237.
- A pilot trial of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet in patients with type 2 diabetes. Yancy Jr WS, Vernon MC, Westman EC: Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders 2003; 1(3): 239-243.
- The 1st World Congress on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome Zachary T Bloomgarden, MD
- The effect of a high- and low-glycemic index energy restricted diets on plasma lipid and glucose profiles in type 2 diabetic subjects with varying glycemic control. Heilbronn LK, Noakes M, Clifton PM: J Am Coll Nutr 2002; 21: 120-127.
- Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle change or metformin Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group
- The glycemic index: physiological mechanisms relating to obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Ludwig DS: JAMA 2002; 287(18): 2414-23.
- Glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of type 2 diabetes. Willett W, Manson J, Liu S: Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 76(1): 274S-80S.
- Effect of energy restriction, weight loss, and diet composition on plasma lipids and glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes. Heilbronn LK, Noakes M, Clifton PM: Diabetes Care1999; 22(6): 889-95.
- Utility of a short-term 25% carbohydrate diet on improving glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Gutierrez M, Akhavan M, Jovanovic L, Peterson CMJ Am Coll Nutr 1998; 17(6): 595-600.
- Comparison of varying carbohydrate content of diet in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
Garg A, Bantle JP, Henry RR, et al. JAMA;271:1421-8.
- Comparison of hypertriglyceridemic effect of low-fat high-carbohydrate diets in NIDDM patients.
Coulston AM, Hollenbeck CB, Swislocki AL, Reaven GM. Diabetes Care 1989;12:94-101.
- Comparison of a high-carbohydrate diet with a high-monounsaturated-fat diet in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
Garg A, Bonanome A, Grundy SM, Zhang ZJ, Unger RH. N Engl J Med 1988;319:829-34.